Why should we be alert to the abuse of antibiotics?

The abuse of antibiotics not only refers to the unreasonable use of antibiotics, but also includes those cases of overtime, excessive, inappropriate or not using antibiotics strictly. The abuse of antibiotics will bring many serious consequences, but the bacterial resistance caused by the abuse of antibiotics has become a serious public health problem.
What is bacterial resistance?
The so-called bacterial resistance refers to the reduction or even disappearance of the drug sensitivity of bacteria after repeated contact with drugs, resulting in the obvious reduction or even ineffectiveness of the efficacy of drugs against drug-resistant bacteria.
Like other organisms in nature, bacterial genes mutate randomly in evolution. The antibiotic sensitive bacteria are killed, while the non sensitive bacteria may survive after gene mutation. After repeated “encounters”, the surviving bacteria have accumulated rich “combat experience” and become varieties, that is, the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria.
There are a small number of drug-resistant bacteria in normal bacteria. However, when we use antibiotics to eliminate pathogenic bacteria, we also kill the normal flora of human body. Drug resistant bacteria will take over and become dominant. Some of the drug-resistant bacteria will also transfer the drug resistance to other bacteria, leading to more problems.
What is the principle of drug resistance? It is mainly elaborated from the following four aspects:
Pseudomonas aeruginosa can change the permeability of cell membrane and prevent the entry of penicillins;
Mycobacterium tuberculosis can prevent the combination of antibiotics by changing the structure of proteins in the body;
What’s more, some Gram-negative bacteria can take the initiative to hydrolyze penicillin and cephalosporins with hydrolase;
Bacteria can not only inherit the mutated genes to the next generation, but also transfer the drug resistance to the heterologous strains through direct contact and plasmid transfer.
What is the harm of drug-resistant bacteria?
In the United States, at least 23000 people die each year from drug-resistant infections, and some data estimate that the number may be much higher.
Superbacteria (which have mutated into multi antibiotic resistant bacteria) are rapidly spreading and pose a serious threat to public health all over the world.
Any abuse or misuse of antibiotics contributes to the increasing number of drug-resistant bacteria. Some predictions show that by 2050, drug-resistant bacteria will kill 10 million people, more than 8.2 million people worldwide die of cancer every year.
The emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is inevitable, and it is also a worldwide problem recognized by the medical community. Although the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria is uncontrollable, but the emergence of drug-resistant bacteria sooner or later, the difficulty of drug-resistant bacteria can be overcome, but it can be controlled. Once drug-resistant strains are found in hospitals, sensitive antibiotics should be selected for treatment according to drug sensitivity test, disinfection and isolation measures should be taken in time, safe and effective disinfectant should be used, and health management should be strengthened to effectively avoid the spread of infection.

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