When it comes to hormones, people often think that it is harmful to the body, so they are far away from hormone products, which is a bit general. For example, growth hormone plays an important role in stunting, burns, reproduction, and prevention of osteoporosis. So don’t “talk about hormone discoloration”, let’s talk to the editor about growth hormone!
First, let’s follow the editor to understand, what is hormone? Hormone (Hormone) in Greek originally means “strive up activity”, which plays an important role in regulating the body’s metabolism, growth, development, reproduction, sex, sexual desire and sexual activity.
Hormones can be divided into 4 categories according to their chemical structure
The first category is steroids, such as adrenocortical hormones (cortisol, aldosterone, etc.), sex hormones (estrogen, progesterone, androgen, etc.).
The second category is amino acid derivatives, such as thyroxine, adrenomedullin hormone, and pineal hormone.
The structure of the third type of hormone is peptide and protein, such as thalamus hormone, pituitary hormone, gastrointestinal hormone, insulin, calcitonin and so on. Growth hormone belongs to this kind of hormone.
The fourth category is fatty acid derivatives, such as prostaglandins.
History of growth hormone
From the clinical application of human pituitary growth hormone in 1958 to the current use of genetic engineering technology to synthesize recombinant human growth hormone, growth hormone drugs have undergone the following development process:
The first generation of hGH (50-70s of the 20th century)
Also known as human pituitary-derived growth hormone, it is extracted from the human pituitary gland just after death and is the earliest clinically used growth hormone.
Second-generation hGH (early 1980s)
Genentech company uses E. Coli (E. Coli) inclusion body technology to develop a gene recombinant human growth hormone containing 192 amino acids-Met-rhGH.
The third generation GH (mid 1980s)
Recombinant human growth hormone containing 191 amino acids is synthesized by ordinary E. coli gene expression technology, but it is not suitable for long-term use due to its structure and human pituitary growth hormone.
Fourth-generation GH (Late 1980s)
The recombinant human growth hormone containing 191 amino acids synthesized by mammalian cell recombinant DNA technology is closer to the structure of natural growth hormone, but currently only used by a few manufacturers.
Fifth generation GH (1990s)
Recombinant human growth hormone synthesized by secreted E. coli gene expression technology, the product is secreted directly outside the cell body. Its amino acid content, sequence and protein structure are completely consistent with human pituitary growth hormone, and its biological activity, potency, purity and absorption rate are extremely high, which ensures the safety, effectiveness and stability of the product while minimizing the cost of treatment.
Characteristics of growth hormone
① Structure: a single chain containing 191 amino acid residues, a protein connected by two disulfide bonds
② Secretion: Eosinophil secretion from anterior pituitary
③Molecular weight: 22KD
④ Secretion method: pulse secretion
⑤ Frequency: The interval is about 3 to 5 hours
⑥Peak: The secretion reaches the peak one hour after sleep, the secretion volume is more than half of the total amount in a day
Growth hormone secretion and regulation
- Pulsed secretion
The secretion of growth hormone (GH) is pulsatile, with greater fluctuations during the day and night, more secretion at night than during the day, and more secretion during puberty.
GH pulsed secretion is not affected by stress such as eating, blood sugar and steroid hormones. GH is difficult to detect in the blood when the peak of secretion is low, and the blood concentration during the day is usually below 5ug / L.
- Circadian rhythm
If the sleep time changes, the peak GH will change accordingly. Normal people 45-90 minutes after sleep, plasma growth hormone levels increased significantly.
GH usually peaks once every 3-4 hours, so it is necessary to ensure adequate sleep time.
- The impact of exercise
In normal people, serum GH cannot be detected under the basal metabolic state, and GH levels may increase after strenuous exercise.
Under the control of absolute exercise volume, high-intensity training causes a significant increase in GH concentration. Aerobic exercise is recommended.
- Influence of diet and mood
Acute hypoglycemia is a strong factor that stimulates GH secretion. On the contrary, high blood sugar can inhibit GH secretion, and a high-protein diet can stimulate GH secretion.
Mood fluctuations can affect the secretion of GH, and nervous tension and anxiety can stimulate the secretion of GH.
The role of recombinant human growth hormone
Currently the only internationally certified dwarf treatment drug
Principle: ① Direct action: The point of action is on the epiphyseal growth plate, which stimulates chondrocytes to produce IGF-1 there, and it promotes the proliferation of chondrocytes; ② Indirect action: IGF-1 and IGF- are produced by binding to GH receptors on the liver surface 1 Participate in the growth and development process.
Growth hormone is one of the essential hormones in the human body. It has been used clinically for nearly 40 years and has achieved good results and experience.
Recombinant human growth hormone, whose structure is exactly the same as the growth hormone naturally secreted by the human body, can completely replace the growth hormone in the human body and play a physiological role.
After years of clinical trials, it has been proven that recombinant human growth hormone can be used to treat a variety of diseases. Up to now, there are 10 indications of recombinant human growth hormone approved by the US FDA.