In March of this year, Russian scientists began to develop the novel coronavirus vaccine, almost at the same time as the novel Coronavirus spread in Russia.
Russian President Vladimir Putin issued an official directive on April 2, days after the country announced home quarantine measures.
The Russian Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology has played a leading role in the development of vaccines.
A vaccine was developed there to prevent ebola hemorrhagic fever.
Russia developed an adenovirus vector vaccine that delivers particles that induce the immune system’s response to the virus.
Alexander Ginzburg, director of the Russian Institute of Epidemiology and Microbiology, likens the mechanism to a taxi: adenovirus vectors transport biological materials from one place to another.
In the case of the coVID-19 vaccine, the biomaterial is the nucleic acid, which contains the S protein gene.
The protein gives the virus its characteristic crown shape.
“The protein triggers the body’s immune mechanisms with corresponding antigens within 10 to 12 days,” says Ginzburg.
Subjects produce antibodies
Human trials of the vaccine developed by the Kamala Institute began on 17 June.
Two groups of 38 volunteers were selected.
The first group was admitted to the General Military Clinical Hospital in Brdenko, while the second group was in the charge of doctors from the First National Medical University in Sechenov.
There were two kinds of vaccine, solution and powder, which were inoculated by intramuscular injection.
Subject will be isolated in hospital for 28 days to avoid the possibility of novel Coronavirus infection under natural conditions.
“Subjects with a novel Coronavirus during an epidemic will have a high rate of novel coronavirus infection if they are living in a daily environment after vaccination, which will make it impossible to tell whether the virus or vaccine induced immunity,” said Tarasov, dean of the School of Translational Medicine and Biotechnology Research at Secenov National First Medical University.
The results were positive after 28 days.
“The first group received twice the dose of the vaccine, and the second group received twice the dose,” said Smolyarchuk, director of the Medical Clinical Research Center at Sechenov University.
Some have redness and scleroma at the injection site, some have elevated body temperature, scratchy throat and painful joints.
In about two or three days all of these symptoms resolve themselves.
The volunteers felt absolutely fine for the next few days.”
The results of the tests at The Military Clinical General Hospital in Burkinje were the same. The subjects’ immunity played a role and antibodies were generated in their bodies.
A number of Russian experts to test the vaccine
The Russian Direct Investment Fund is funding the project.
Dmitriev, President of the foundation, said the Russian-made vaccine showed encouraging results, as did vaccines developed by Britain’s Oxford University in collaboration with Astrazeneca and China’s Comsino Bio.
The Gamalia vaccine “will novel Coronavirus completely immune,” he said.
“I was so confident in the Gamalia vaccine that I even gave myself a dose,” he wrote in a newsweek column.
Dr. Ginzburg and several of his colleagues also tested the vaccine on themselves, drawing criticism from some drug companies.
The Association of clinical research groups, whose members include Pfizer, Astrazeneca and Bayer, said the injecting of experimental drugs by Gamalia staff was a serious violation of Russian law and generally accepted international norms.
“It is considered immoral because people who get unapproved drugs can get worse diseases and even die,” epidemiologist Andrei Favolov told the BBC’s Russian.com.
The third phase of the trial will be conducted overseas
Who Director-General Tedros Adhanom Ghebrev announced on July 1 that 141 coVID-19 vaccines are under development worldwide.
Previously, WHO chief scientist Swaminathan said the most likely winners were a vaccine from US-BASED Moderna and a vaccine developed by Oxford University in collaboration with Astrazeneca.
She also says the WORLD Health Organization is interested in a vaccine from Russia.
Russian scientists and officials have provided information that gives reason to believe that gamaliya’s vaccine has a chance of being the first in the world to hit the market.
Dmitriev said the second phase of clinical trials of the vaccine will end on August 3 and is expected to be approved by national regulators in August and September.
He said the third phase will be conducted outside the country, especially in the Middle East.
Ginzburg would not rule out mass production of the vaccine as early as this fall.
Up to 70 million doses of vaccine will be needed to fully vaccinate Russian residents.
Mr. Tarasov of Sechenov University is less optimistic, predicting mass production will begin by the end of 2020.
Dmitriev, chairman of the Russian Direct Investment Fund, estimates that Russia could produce 30 million doses of vaccine by the end of the year.
That number could be expanded to 200 million doses if licensing agreements are reached with manufacturers around the world.
He also said Russia was negotiating to produce Russian vaccines in Saudi Arabia.