Talking about the effect of hormone on puberty
Abstract: Adolescence refers to the transition period from child growth to adulthood, generally around 10 to 20 years old. Adolescence is a series of physiological, biochemical, endocrine and psychological, behavioral mutation stages dominated by sexual maturity. Adolescent individuals are in the “second growth and development peak”, not only the height, weight, shoulder width and pelvic width have changed significantly, but also the physiological functions of the nervous, cardiovascular, respiratory and other systems are becoming more and more perfect, men and women The sexual organs and sexual functions are rapidly maturing. Hormones affect the physiological activities of human body by regulating the metabolic activities of various tissue cells. Hormone levels have significant changes during puberty. It plays a vital role in the growth, development and maturation of adolescence. This article describes the effects of hormones on puberty. Make an overview.
Keywords: puberty; hormone; development
1 Changes in the secretion system during adolescence
The endocrine system of the human body consists of the endocrine glands of the body and can be divided into two categories: one consists of the glandular epithelium as the main tissue, and the endogenous organs that are visible to the naked eye and exist independently, such as the thyroid gland, parathyroid gland, adrenal gland, pituitary gland, and pine. The body, thymus, etc.; the other type is dispersed in other organs by the glandular epithelium, through the tissue section, the endocrine tissue can be distinguished under the microscope, such as interstitial cells in the testis, follicles and corpus luteum in the ovary. The endocrine system is an important regulatory system outside the nervous system, regulating the growth and development, metabolism, and reproductive activities of the body. The endocrine glands are structurally different from other glands, and there is no excretory duct, also known as the ductless gland. The substance secreted is called a hormone, and it penetrates directly into the capillaries and capillary lymphatic vessels of the gland, and it flows through the blood circulation system to regulate certain organs.
Adolescent human changes are done under the influence of hormones. Before puberty, some changes occurred in the lower part of the thalamus, and began to secrete hormones that promote the maturation of the pituitary gland. Under the action of these hormones, the pituitary gland begins to secrete growth hormone, thyroid stimulating hormone, adrenocorticotropic hormone and gonadotropin. These hormones are closely related to the growth and development of the human body. At the same time, they promote the function of the endocrine glands such as the thyroid gland, adrenal gland, ovary and pancreas in the body, thereby promoting the growth and development of puberty.
2 hormones that affect puberty development
2.1 Growth hormone
Growth hormone is a protein secreted by pituitary cells and is a peptide hormone. The ansomone growth hormone produced by recombinant DNA technology is abbreviated as r-HGH. The main physiological function of growth hormone is to promote the growth of all other tissues except nerve tissue; promote the body’s anabolism and protein synthesis; promote fat decomposition; antagonize insulin; inhibit glucose utilization and increase blood sugar. The main physiological role of growth hormone is to promote the synthesis of various tissues, especially proteins, and to stimulate the growth of osteoarticular cartilage and osteophyte cartilage, and thus can be increased. The lack of growth hormone in the human body leads to stagnant growth.
2.2 Thyroid hormone
Thyroid hormone is a hormone secreted by the thyroid gland. It is an amino acid derivative that promotes metabolism and development, and increases the excitability of the nervous system; breathing, increased heart rate, and increased heat production. Thyroid hormone is essential for the normal growth and development of the human body. It can promote the maturation and development of bones, teeth and sexual organs. Insufficient or excessive secretion can cause diseases. When the thyroid function is insufficient, both body and mental development are affected, and excessive thyroid hormone secretion. Will cause hyperthyroidism in adolescence.
2.3 Adrenal hormones
Adrenal hormones are secreted by the adrenal glands. The adrenal gland is located on the upper side of the kidney and is triangular in shape and weighs approximately 10-15 grams. The adrenal gland is divided into two parts: the cortex and the medulla. The adrenal cortex secretes glucocorticoids, mineralocorticoids and sex hormones. The adrenal gland produces a variety of hormones. It is closely related to puberty development, mineralocorticoid, glucocorticoid, adrenal androgen and adrenal gland. , and androgen can promote the growth of pubic hair and mane in adolescence. Adrenal medullary chromaffin cells secrete adrenaline and norepinephrine, act on the central nervous system, improve their excitability, make the body alert, sensitive; increase respiratory respiration, increase lung ventilation; rapid heartbeat, ventricular contraction Enhanced, increased cardiac output.
2.4 sex hormones
Sex hormone (chemical essence is lipid) refers to the steroid hormone synthesized by the gonads of the animal body, as well as the placenta and adrenal cortex reticular band. It has the functions of promoting sexual organ maturation, accessory sexual development and maintenance. Female ovaries mainly secrete two sex hormones, estrogen and progesterone. The testicles of male animals mainly secrete testosterone-based androgens. Estrogen can promote mammary gland development and fat deposition. Synergistic effects of progesterone can cause periodic changes in the endometrium to cause menstrual cramps and maintain normal sexual desire and reproductive function. Androgen promotes the emergence of male sexual organs and secondary sexual characteristics, and maintains normal sexual desire and reproductive function.
3 hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis
Among the 125 most challenging scientific issues published in the 125th anniversary of Science’s founding, “What triggered puberty?” is a complex issue involving many fields such as evolution, genetics, and developmental development. Current research has focused on changes in the activation state of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Some endocrine factors (neurohormones and neurotransmitters, especially the kisspeptin secreted by the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons) may be one of the first dominoes in this miraculous circadian clock, which triggers the secretion of gonadotropin-releasing hormone from the hypothalamus. The pituitary gland releases the gonadotropin follicle stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone, which stimulates the gland to release sex hormones, which leads to the development of secondary sexual characteristics and maturity of the individual. At the same time, a large number of research results have indicated that the resources of the living environment and the individuals Nutritional status, etc., also affects the onset of puberty. Human and animal data on adolescent dysplasia also suggest some genetic factors that determine the onset of puberty. However, more understanding of the pubertal initiation mechanism requires more research, such as brain development. Top-down regulation, synergy of various neurohormones and neurotransmitters, and how psychosocial factors are connected to the HPG axis loop, etc. The revelation of the mechanism that triggers puberty is not only helpful in understanding the delicate processes of individual maturation, but also for prevention and Provide guidance for treating dysplasia, and you can also push Explore the continuation of the deepening of species adaptation mechanisms.
In adolescents, hormones reach a high level, and growth and development are also very rapid. Therefore, at this special stage, the normal development of the individual should be ensured through reasonable diet, active exercise, maintaining a good mood, and paying attention to personal hygiene. In the future, lay a good foundation.