Core tip: In different periods of growth and development of children, the way of providing them with food should also be different. How to give children more immune protection from the diet?
0～3 years old plan
The child gets immunity from the mother when it is born, and it can generally last for about 6 months. After 6 months, the child’s own immune system gradually develops. By the age of 1 year, the resistance level of the child is equivalent to 60% of that of an adult, and by the age of 3 it is equivalent to about 80% of that of an adult. Therefore, 0 to 3 years old is a dangerous period for children with low immunity. How to improve children’s immunity from the nutritional aspect during this special period?
- Breastfeeding gives children excellent immune protection
For children under 1 year old, breastfeeding is promoted. Facts have proved that children who do not take breast milk are prone to get sick after 6 months; and most children who take breast milk do not have repeated infections after 6 months. This is because in addition to the proper ratio of various nutrients in breast milk, it is easy to digest, absorb and utilize. It is the most ideal nutrition for the growth and development of infants. The more important thing is that breast milk contains many immune components, such as a variety of anti-microbial antibodies. Lactoferrin. Bifidus factor. Active immune cells, etc. Therefore, breastfeeding can make children grow up healthily and not easily get sick.
But if the mother does not have enough milk or cannot breastfeed, she has no choice but to use formula milk (called artificial feeding). However, formula milk powder is difficult to compare with breast milk in terms of immunity, so for artificially fed children, more attention should be paid to promoting their immunity from other aspects, especially the addition of complementary foods to make children less sick.
- Plan to add food or nutritional supplements that promote immunity
Whether it is breastfeeding or artificial feeding, when the child is 4 months old, breast milk or dairy products alone cannot satisfy the child’s rapid growth and development, and complementary food must be added. Children after 1 year old basically rely on food. How to systematically add immune-promoting food or nutritional supplements to protect the child’s immunity?
The substances in food that can improve immunity mainly include a variety of vitamins and trace elements, of which the vitamin A.C.D. trace element zinc has a more obvious effect. These substances are found in a variety of foods. For example, foods rich in vitamin A include animal foods (mainly liver, milk powder, crabs and eggs) and plant foods (mainly carrots, cabbage, rape, spinach, spinach and spinach). Coriander, leeks, etc.), animal foods directly contain vitamin A, while plant foods contain carotene, which then becomes vitamin A in the human body. Foods rich in vitamin C include lemons, oranges, tomatoes, green peppers and so on. Vitamin D produced by sunlight on the skin is the main source of vitamin D in the body. Foods with relatively high vitamin D content in foods include liver and egg yolks. Foods rich in trace element zinc include fish, eggs, meat, liver, beans, grains and so on.
Milk contains few immune-related nutrients, so when the child is 2 to 3 months old, it is necessary to supplement various immune-related nutrients according to the child’s gastrointestinal tolerance, such as fresh fruit juice and vegetable juice. Egg yolk. Fish paste. Tomatoes and so on. And because there are obvious differences in the types of nutrients contained in food, and the human body wants to obtain as wide a variety as possible, it needs to diversify the diet, so as to ensure the supply of various vitamins and trace elements. However, the baby’s daily intake is limited, and my country has always been a country with moderate subclinical vitamin A deficiency in children as defined by the World Health Organization. Therefore, it is necessary for parents to supplement their babies with relevant nutrients, such as vitamin AD drops. Vitamins C film. Licorice zinc and so on, to provide the body’s needs and protect the immune function.
3-12 years old plan
Generally, about 3 years after birth, the child’s own immunity gradually develops and matures, but the immunity of the respiratory and digestive tracts is still very low, and the respiratory and digestive tracts are easily infected, such as colds, diarrhea, viral enteritis, and bronchitis. Pneumonia and so on.
In fact, children suffering from various infectious diseases are themselves training for the “guards” of immunity. In the fight against the enemy, if the “guard” wins the battle to prevent bacterial or viral infection, the child avoids obvious diseases. However, if the prevention is not successful, you will fall ill, and you must rely on the help of a doctor (medication and supplementation of the child’s immunity) to increase the “guard” ability and strengthen the prevention of bacteria or viruses, and the disease will be less severe. On the contrary, if the “guard” is weak and cannot defeat the pathogen in battle, the disease will worsen, and stronger immunity is needed to help recover from the disease. Regardless of the ending, the child’s immunity is trained. When the same “enemy” is encountered next time, the “guards” that have been trained will give strong resistance to protect the body.
In severe infections, the process of killing bacteria or viruses consumes a lot of the child’s body. Therefore, it is best to train the immune “guard” without harming the body. Therefore, it is critical for children in this period to carry out various measures. Immune protection, such as healthy diet, regular physical exercise, and establishing good living habits. The so-called healthy diet includes a reasonable combination of dietary ingredients and a regular diet. If it can be achieved, the child will not only develop normally, but also be healthy.
Eating problems that children from 3 to 12 years old often appear:
(1) The partial eclipse makes children’s nutrient intake unreasonable, leading to the lack or deficiency of vitamins and trace elements in the body.
(2) Children living in cities are more prone to vitamin deficiency because they eat less fresh fruits and vegetables, and fruits and vegetables often go through the process of packaging and storage, so that the vitamins in them are lost.
(3) Certain unhealthy eating behaviors, such as overeating, eating greasy foods and a taste for sweets, will affect the body’s immunity. Because when children eat too much, too greasy or eat a lot of sweets, the body will boost blood flow to the digestive system to promote food digestion and absorption. At the same time, the immune “guards” are also concentrated in the digestive tract, and other organs are relatively due to blood flow. Less, in an inactive state. If the infection is invaded at this time, the immune “guard” should be immediately dispatched to the possible infection lesions. At this time, the body is not present except for the high function of the digestive system. In a good state, the body’s defense system is also fragile, and the immunity is relatively low, and pathogens such as viruses or bacteria can take advantage of the opportunity.
(4) Fast food diet. The formula of fast food is simple, it is not about balanced nutrition at all, just to fill the stomach. There is no harm if you eat less, but if you skip meals every morning and eat fast food at noon, you will have eating disorders, especially vitamin deficiencies.
It is important to establish good eating habits and to match the thickness, meat and vegetables, and fresh fruits and vegetables. At the same time, you should also pay attention to the diversification of color varieties, appropriate seasoning, avoid using irritating condiments, and eat less fried food. Of course, to create a relaxed and pleasant dining environment, the whole family pays attention to healthy eating together is the most meaningful. The adults lead by example, and the whole family sits at the dining table at least once a day and eats calmly. Don’t rush, don’t walk around while eating, don’t play loud music while eating, don’t read or watch TV while eating. In addition, do not teach your children while eating, let alone scold your children while eating. In this way, a healthy diet not only ensures the supply of various nutrients for the child, but also promotes the normal function of the body’s immune system.